Несмотря на различные календари и национальные особенности празднования, Новый год остается желанным и ожидаемым праздником во многих странах. Однако далеко не всегда он ассоциировался с предпраздничной суетой под звуки кавера нетленной песни Last Christmas или шлягера от шведского квартета ABBA.

Будем праздновать как в Вавилоне

Любой историк с уверенностью скажет, что Новый год праздновали в древнем Вавилоне. Насколько древнем? Если не вдаваться в подробности, то около четырех тысяч лет тому назад в жарком междуречье Тигра и Евфрата (там, где сейчас расположен Ирак) люди впервые решили отпраздновать Новый год. Как у многих древних цивилизаций, у вавилонян Новый год был связан с культом солнца и луны, и наступал он в первый день весны. Зато праздновали целых одиннадцать дней.

Уже в римское время Гай Юлий Цезарь изменил календарь, и Новый год стали праздновать 1 января. Праздник был одобрен Бахусом, и в канун Нового года в Римской империи процветало повальное возлияние, благо вина хватало всем: и хозяевам, и рабам. Народ дарил друг другу подарки, а императоры получали их в обязательном порядке.

Язычество и христианство, а потом просто коммерция

Цикличность природы нашла отображения в целом ряде языческих обрядов, которые со временем были замещены, инкорпорированы или вытеснены христианским видением этого праздника.

Христианская традиция отмечает праздник Обрезания Христова на Новый год. Католики также часто отмечают Торжество Пресвятой Богородицы, праздник в честь Марии.

Но уже в XX веке праздник окончательно лишился каких-либо религиозных подтекстов, став центральным мирским событием для большинства стран Европы и Северной Америки. Он лишился религиозного подтекста, но часть обрядов осталась, и многие люли по-прежнему следуют старым традициям, порой даже не зная, что они значат и откуда берут начало.

Еда, шампанское и суеверия

Встреча Нового года, как правило, имеет много схожих черт в разных странах мира, как по форме, так и по сути. В большинстве стран есть существенные различия в еде, но почти все сходятся на том, что Новый год немыслим без шампанского. В Лондоне или Калифорнии на праздник принято устраивать парады, а в большинстве стран встреча локализуется в историческом центре с фейерверками и массовыми гуляньями.

Новый год немыслим без целого вороха суеверий, к которым относятся с юмором, но стараются соблюдать. В англосаксонских странах принято ждать того, кто первым переступит порог дома, если это будет высокий, темноволосый незнакомец (которого называют First Footer или Lucky Bird), то будет удача и всякие приятности в течение года.

Как встречают Новый год в разных странах?

В США Новый год встречают с тостами, фейерверком и отсчетом секунд до падения огненного шара на Time Square в Нью-Йорке. Кстати, впервые подобное событие произошло в 1907 году, тогда шар был из железа и дерева, а сейчас — из хрусталя.

Также несомненным атрибутом встречи праздника является исполнение песни Auld Lang Syne.

Auld Lang Syne («Доброе старое время») — старая шотландская песня, которая была впервые опубликована поэтом Робертом Бернсом в 1796 году в книге с записанными шотландскими народными песнями, но стала популярной за океаном только в 1920—1930 годы в исполнении Гая Ломбардо и его ансамбля Royal Canadians.

Французы обычно празднуют Новый год с банкетом и шампанским, отмечая первые моменты наступившего года поцелуями под омелой, которую большинство других культур ассоциируют с рождественскими праздниками.

Кстати, традиция целоваться на праздники под омелой (будь то Рождество или Новый год) является отголоском древнеримских сатурналий, которые также приходились на конец декабря. В этот день всеобщего веселья разрешалось целовать даже незнакомых людей.

В Греции принято встречать Новый год карточными играми и обширным столом. В полночь выключают свет и режут пирог, куда положили монету, кто ее нашел, тому и повезет в наступившем году.

Испанцы последние 12 ударов новогодних курантов совмещают с поеданием 12 виноградин. Традиция говорит о том, что так можно обеспечить двенадцать счастливых месяцев в предстоящем году.

На Филиппинах праздники принято отмечать очень громко. Жители островного государства уверены, что шум будет отпугивать злых существ. Полночь 31 декабря встречают с двенадцатью различными видами фруктов, что символизирует удачу на все двенадцать месяцев года. Новогодний стол филиппинца скромен, и включают рис и лапшу.

Новый год является важным праздником и в Японии. Там он является символом обновления. В декабре проводят различные bonenkai или «вечеринку, чтобы забыть уходящий год». На них попрощаются с проблемами и заботами прошлого года и готовятся к новому началу. В полночь 31 декабря буддийские храмы бьют 108 раз в гонг в попытке изгнать 108 видов человеческой слабости. В день, когда наступает новый год, взрослые стараются не работать, а дети получают otoshidamas, небольшие подарки с деньгами внутри. Также в Японии широко распространена традиция отправления предновогодних поздравлений в виде открыток.

И только в странах бывшего СССР и государствах, где есть большое количество православных верующих, принято помимо Нового года отмечать Старый Новый год. Старая путаница с календарями и летоисчислением легла на благодатную почву любви к отдыху и празднествам.

Станислав Кинка


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