Не так и много найдется любителей погулять по Дюковскому парку. Относительно недалеко расположенный от центра, он давно слывет местом неблагополучным. Хотя в погожий день здесь можно отлично провести время, гуляя заросшими аллеями некогда величественного парка, и почувствовать себя, как в лесу.

Изредка эту идиллию может нарушить проезжающий с северо-западной стороны поезд или редкая электричка. Но парк крепко зажат в тисках города: внизу — шумная Балковская, сверху — железная дорога и частный сектор с витиеватыми улочками одесской Слободки, по бокам его ограничивают дороги, которые ведут из центра и Молдаванки на Слободку и далее.

Но так было не всегда. Мало кто знает, что Дюковский – один из самых ранних памятников паркового искусства Одессы.

Сейчас размеры парка составляют 450 на 550 метров. Он расположен на трех уровнях: нижнем – вдоль ул. Балковской, среднем – на самом склоне (не очень крутом, местами с искусственными террасами) и верхнем – плоском. Внизу, слева от входа, довольно большой продолговатый пруд (200 на 50 метров) с островком, питающийся от пресного ключа, который вытекает из склона.

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От пустоши к парку… и снова в забвение

Этот парк в разные времена назывался по-разному: Ришельевская дача (сам градоначальник там жил, подчеркивая статусность этого места, бывшего далекой окраиной города в начале XIX столетия), Дюковский сад, Ришельевский сад, Городской сад и, наконец, Дюковский парк.

Когда-то на его месте была пустошь. Стараниями герцога она была превращена в цветущий оазис. Сам Ришелье специально выписывал саженцы и семена из Греции, Италии и Испании, чтобы обустроить степные склоны Водяной балки.

Покидая Одессу осенью 1814-го года, герцог Ришелье оставил сад своему адъютанту (впоследствии – личному секретарю) полковнику Ивану Александровичу Стемпковскому, который, в свою очередь, передал его в дар городу. Однако подарок довольно быстро пришел в упадок.

Расположенный на границе двух не самых благоприятных исторических районов Одессы – Молдаванки и Слободки, Дюковский парк стал довольно быстро приходить в запустение. Последующие градоначальники Одессы либо были слишком заняты более важными проблемами, либо их летние резиденции находились поближе к морю, но ни один из них не смог привести некогда красивейший уголок Одессы в надлежащий вид.

Через сто лет после отъезда Ришелье из Одессы современники вспоминали Дюковский сад-парк следующим образом: «Сад этот составлял собственность дюка Ришелье, откуда и получил свое название. Когда-то это был прекрасный сад с фонтанами, прудами, ручейками и богатой растительностью, теперь от всего этого кое-как сохранилась растительность, в тени которой в праздничные дни любит проводить свои досуги небогатое население Молдаванки».

В прессе начала XX века не раз можно встретить сокрушения по поводу того, что парк, поражавший некогда своим величием, приходит в запустение, а в муниципалитете до него нет никому дела: «Умирают памятники, гибнут образы прошлого, а наши муниципалы, вместо того, чтобы сохранить их, дают им гибнуть до основания», — пишет безымянный журналист в газете «Южная мысль» за 17 сентября 1911-го года.

Новое название и новые функции

После Второй мировой войны сад-парк получает новое название – парк Победы – и новую жизнь. Один из современных летописцев Одессы пишет: «На послевоенном энтузиазме трудящихся был реконструирован и переименован в парк «Победа». Качеством проведенной реконструкции тут же воспользовались режиссеры Феликс Миронер и Марлен Хуциев, снявшие в парке многие сцены знаменитого фильма «Весна на Заречной улице».

dyukovskij-park-1940-g

Дюковский парк, 1940 г.

В 1950-х годах на территории парка Победы были выстроены павильоны для областной сельскохозяйственной выставки. К 1955-му году архитекторы Г. Топуз, В. Мусаров, Т. Шарнопольский и М. Шлифер разработали генеральный план застройки участка областной сельскохозяйственной выставки в Дюковском парке, а также — главный вход на выставку, ряд павильонов, декоративное оформление и малые архитектурные формы, элементы благоустройства и озеленения территории.

dyukovskij-park-1950-g

Дюковский парк, 1950 г.

В конце 1950-х гг. парк становится спортивно-развлекательным центром в небогатой достопримечательностями части города.

Как пишет в своих воспоминаниях писатель Лев Штерн: «В одном из углов большого пруда сооружают открытый спортивный бассейн, длиной 50 метров и 10-метровую вышку для прыжков, небольшую трибуну для зрителей».

dyukovkij-park-1958-g

На самом пруду начинает работать лодочная станция. Один за другим открываются Зеленый театр, музей китобойной флотилии, вход в который был перекрыт челюстью кита, Ледовый дворец, планетарий – все то, от чего сейчас остались руины. В павильонах сельскохозяйственной выставки в то время располагались пионерлагеря.

dyukovskij-park-1959-g

Дюковский парк, 1959 г.

А в начале 1970-х гг. на всей территории парка прошла небывалая выставка, которую помнят старые одесситы – тогда, при президенте США Ричарде Никсоне в Одессу привезли выставку «Туризм и отдых в США» и разместили ее как раз на территории Дюковского парка. Очереди желающих попасть в кусочек «штатов», по свидетельству очевидцев, растянулись чуть ли не до Автовокзала.

dyukovskij-park-1970-1980-e-gg

Дюковский парк, 1970—1980-е гг.

dyukovskij-park-1980-g

Дюковский парк, 1980 г.

Назад к забвению

В 1990-е годы Дюковский парк приходит в окончательную заброшенность. Аллеи заросли, а главный водоем стал напоминать болото, со всеми атрибутами: тиной, неприятным запахом, и, конечно же, лягушками. Впрочем, там можно было увидеть и заядлых рыбаков. Хотя подобную живность можно объяснить и близостью воды – некогда ул. Балковская была Водяной балкой, и еще в 1950-е годы ее называли не иначе как Канава, а мутный водный поток, текущий по этой улице еще помнят старожилы города.

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Дюковский парк, 2013—2015 гг.

Часть парка была отдана под спортивный клуб. Те части парка, где есть владелец, имеют кое-какой человеческий вид, где владельца нет — царит заброшенность и уныние.

Прекрасное далеко

За последние тридцать лет в печати неоднократно появлялись проекты реконструкции парка, однако практически ничего не было выполнено.

В 2014-м году появилась информация о том, что в Дюковском саду построят торговый центр и даже есть договоренности с представителями знаменитой сети отелей Hilton на строительство гостиницы. Через некоторое время мэр Одессы Геннадий Труханов проинспектировал как идут дела у ООО «Центр «Катюша». Эта организация с конечными бенефициарами из Российской Федерации и Швейцарии управляет парком на протяжении многих лет. Но дальше разговоров и красивых картинок дело не продвинулось.

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В настоящее время Дюковский сад получил проект благоустройства (победителей объявили в июне этого года), но значит ли это, что он будет приведен в порядок?

Станислав Кинка


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